Teaching Module on Climate Change Education based on Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE) pedagogy for Capacity Development of Science Teachers


With a population of over 210 million, Pakistan is one of the most vulnerable countries to the impacts of climate change in the world. The country is expected to face severe extreme climate events, such as increased variability of monsoons, receding glacial caps, heatwaves, floods, and droughts. To address this mammoth challenge, there is an urgent need for the adaptive capacity of communities through adequate science education and enabling citizens to make informed decisions in the context of climate change.

Science education plays a vital role to prepare societies for the future global challenges, including the climate change. Climate science education can be one of the essential components and a catalyst in deescalating the rate of climate change by raising awareness, promoting evidence-based research and knowledge. The climate change issues can be effectively dealt with a policy framework and political determination only if the decisions are based on scientific research data and rational judgment.

Equipping citizens and professionals with the knowledge and skills to understand and respond to climate change is an essential part of adaptation and mitigation efforts. The integration of climate change into school education that contributes to professional development of young Pakistani students to address the climate change issues. In addition, through their learning, students transfer knowledge into the home, the community and into professional spheres as they enter the work force.

With this objective in mind, ECOSF in collaboration with InterAcademy Partnership on Science Education Program (IAP SEP) has developed this teacher training module on Climate Change Education for science teachers that employs Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE) pedagogy. This training module aimed at delivering effective content on climate change to students of grade 5 through 10. Another objective of this assignment is developing an assessment or evaluation methodology for this training to measure the depth of learning with IBSE pedagogy. This is to demonstrate that inquiry-based approach could offer greater degree of learning and understanding of science concepts and processes in comparison to traditional science teaching methods.

Employing Inquiry Based Science Education to teach Climate Change education

Inquiry-Based Science Education (IBSE) is a form of science education that unlike the traditional model where the teacher provides facts and the students learn them, gives children the opportunity to explore “hands on”, to experiment, to ask questions and to develop responses based on reasoning.

IBSE takes a more student-centered approach to teaching and puts focus on questions and problem-solving.

  • Develop their own questions
  • Collect Evidence
  • Form a decision
  • Construct Explanations
  • Communicate Logically

Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE) - Learning Cycle

Inquiry based learning provides an opportunity to Students to learn problem-solving skills using methods like the ones scientists employ that should lead them through parallel stages of discovery. The teaching modules on climate change have been developed based on the framework of IBSE learning that follows each one of the following steps:

  • Engage: Teachers create interest and generate curiosity in the topic of study; raise questions and elicit responses from students that will give you an idea of what they already know.
  • Explore: At this stage students are given opportunities to work together without direct instruction from the teacher. Teachers act as facilitators, helping students to frame questions by asking questions and observing.
  • Explain: Teachers encourage students to explain concepts in their own words, ask for evidence and clarification of their explanation, and listen critically to one another's explanation and those of the teacher. Students use observations and recordings in their explanations.
  • Elaborate: Apply concepts and skills in new (but similar) situations and use formal labels and definitions.
  • Evaluation: Evaluation takes place throughout the learning experience. Teachers observe students' knowledge and/or skills, application of new concepts and a change in thinking. Students assess their own learning progress. Teachers ask questions that would encourage future investigations.

Potential Benefits of employing Inquiry Based Science Education as a teaching methodology for STEM subjects.

  • An inquiry-based science education paves the way for effective learning of science and boost critical thinking.
  • Majority of businesses and leaders are primarily interested in job candidate’s demonstrated capacity to think critically, communicate clearly, and solve complex problems.
  • Recent survey by Human Resource professionals ranked critical thinking as one of the most important skills that employees will need in the next five years.
  • Being scientifically literate helps students to be thoughtful global citizens.

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